Spinoza: A Life

Spinoza: A Life ePUB Î Spinoza: A PDF \

Spinoza: A Life [Reading] ➽ Spinoza: A Life By Steven Nadler – Polishdarling.co.uk Baruch Spinoza was one of the most important philosophers of all time he was also arguably the most radical and controversial This was the first complete biography of Spinoza in any language and is Baruch Spinoza was one of the most important philosophers of all time he was also arguably the most radical and controversial This was the first complete biography of Spinoza in any language and is based on detailed archival research More than simply recounting the story of Spinoza s life, the book Spinoza: A PDF \ takes the reader right into the heart of Jewish Amsterdam in the seventeenth century and, with Spinoza s exile from Judaism, right into the midst of the tumultuous political, social, intellectual and religious world of the young Dutch Republic Though the book will be an invaluable resource for philosophers, historians, and scholars of Jewish thought, it has been written for any member of the general reading public with a serious interest in philosophy, Jewish history, seventeenth century European history, and the culture of the Dutch Golden Age Spinoza A Life has recently been awarded the Koret Jewish Book Award.


About the Author: Steven Nadler

Steven Nadler is the William H Hay II Professor of Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin Madison His books include Rembrandt s Jews, which was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize Spinoza A Life, which won the Koret Jewish Book Award and A Book Forged in Hell Spinoza s Scandalous Treatise Spinoza: A PDF \ and the Birth of the Secular Age Princeton.



10 thoughts on “Spinoza: A Life

  1. robin friedman robin friedman says:

    A Biography Of A Great PhilosopherBenedict Spinoza 1632 1677 is one of the most influential philosophers in history As a young man, her was excommunicated by the elders of the Jewish community in Amsterdam and subsequently came to be regarded by some as a secular saint and by others as an infamous atheist Although there are many legends and myths about Spinoza s life, there has been no extended biography in English until Nadler s study In fact, outside of brief accounts written shortly af A Biography Of A Great PhilosopherBenedict Spinoza 1632 1677 is one of the most influential philosophers in history As a young man, her was excommunicated by the elders of the Jewish community in Amsterdam and subsequently came to be regarded by some as a secular saint and by others as an infamous atheist Although there are many legends and myths about Spinoza s life, there has been no extended biography in English until Nadler s study In fact, outside of brief accounts written shortly after Spinoza s death, this book is probably the first extended treatment of Spinoza s life in any language.Given the scarcity of biographical information, Nadler does an excellent job in placing Spinoza s life in historical context He discusses in detail how the Jewish community in Amsterdam became established, precariously, by immigrants from the Inquisition in Spain and Portugal He describes the efforts the Jewish community made to win acceptance in Amsterdam, the place of Spinoza s family in the Jewish community, and the rabbis and leaders of the community Some of this material is well known, others of it is less so It is all valuable to getting to understand Spinoza.There is a great deal of discussion of the history of the Dutch republic in Spinoza s time Nadler s discussion includes both internal affairs the tension between those who wanted a powerful monarch and those who wanted republican institutions and the complex foreign wars and shifting alliances of the Netherlands during Spinoza s time I never could make sense of this material before, but Nadler has discussed it well and in sufficient detail to provide a good background in understanding Spinoza s political ideas.Nadler s book is not itself a philosophical study But he treats carefully and instructively the origin of Spinoza s works and he summarizes their complex ideas well He does not limit his discussion to the Ethics Instead, Nadler spends a great deal of time on the Theological Political Treatise which he rightly views as a neglected masterpiece complementary to the Ethics There are also good discussions of Spinoza s unfinished Hebrew Grammar and, particularly, of the Epistles, as well as of his other works.Nadler has a good sense of Spinoza s naturalism encompassed be the famous phrase deus, siva natura He gives the reader a good feel for the revolutionary nature of Spinoza s thought and shows how and why Spinoza departed from the traditional religious belief of his day.Nadler is a careful in his use of sources He tells the reader what evidence from a record both complex and sparse he accepts, what he doubts, and why When Nadler draws a conclusion that goes beyond the available evidence, he tells the reader that he has done so and why he has done so This is measured, careful writing about a figure Nadler obviously admires.There is much creative detail in this book as Nadler draws on recent scholarship to cast light on Spinoza and his times For example, he relies substantially on the report made to the Inquisition of a person who knew Spinoza in Amsterdam He discusses the Sabatti Zvi incident a false Jewish Messiah who appealed to many people during Spinoza s lifetime and Spinoza s possible knowledge of it The book debunks the myth of Spinoza as a recluse One of the strongest features of the book is its picture of Spinoza s intellectual circle and of his relationship to many friends.The book doesn t include a critical analysis of Spinoza s thought Such studies are legion and there still is much to say and learn Also, the book doesn t discuss the reception and influence of Spinoza through the years Again, this is beyond the scope of the book The book is an excellent biography of a seminal figure in Western philosophy I came away from the book with a increased understanding of and appreciation for Spinoza s life and thought.Robin Friedman


  2. K K says:

    I ve already started reading Rebecca Goldstein s for comparison purposes , which is reinforcing my belief that it s a cliche, or should be, that a Jew of Orthodox background who fancies himself a free thinker will be drawn to the mystique surrounding this philosopher Really, who wouldn t be At age 23, Baruch Spinoza, born and raised in the Orthodox Jewish community of 17th century Amsterdam, yeshiva educated, is excommunicated and cursed by his community for unknown deeds, in one of the I ve already started reading Rebecca Goldstein s for comparison purposes , which is reinforcing my belief that it s a cliche, or should be, that a Jew of Orthodox background who fancies himself a free thinker will be drawn to the mystique surrounding this philosopher Really, who wouldn t be At age 23, Baruch Spinoza, born and raised in the Orthodox Jewish community of 17th century Amsterdam, yeshiva educated, is excommunicated and cursed by his community for unknown deeds, in one of the most vituperative extant Jewish excommunication documents Spinoza, apparently without a backward glance, leaves his family and his familiar world and goes on to become a great and highly controversial philosopher, shaking contemporary dogma and remaining iconoclastic to the end Oh, the drama.But if what you re hoping for is a juicy look at Spinoza s inner life, the pathos he and those around him must have experienced before, during, and after his excommunication, his final good bye with his family, or inner conflicts and regrets on both sides, this is not the book Steven Nadler is way too responsible a historian for that He gives you details lots of them and offers tight, well supported arguments to buttress his conclusions, but he restricts those conclusions to areas where information is available And we apparently know very little about Spinoza s personal life or inner feelings, particularly around the time of his excommunication.This book will give you a feel for 17th century Amsterdam its politics, its intellectual ferment, its Jewish and Christian communities It will give you a sense of Portuguese Marrano families and what they went through It will tell you about the ideological controversies of the times, and how Spinoza both contributed to these controversies and was affected by them It will try not entirely successfully, in my case to give you a distilled understanding of Spinoza s philosophy and writings It s an educational and worthwhile read, and an admirable feat What it won t give you is Spinoza The Drama, which would certainly be aexciting, if highly speculative read Oh, well It was an effort, but I m not sorry I pushed my way through I learned a lot


  3. Lauren Albert Lauren Albert says:

    So, some time ago Fred I decided to read The Ethics together That lasted about a day His theory was that if you don t understand something, you keep reading and eventually it will all come clear to you My theory is that if you don t understand page 1, you ll never understand page 2 Since I could never quite get page 1 metaphorically speaking , I was never ever going to move on to page 2 That just doesn t work for a reading group, even a two person group So I entered this book with trepi So, some time ago Fred I decided to read The Ethics together That lasted about a day His theory was that if you don t understand something, you keep reading and eventually it will all come clear to you My theory is that if you don t understand page 1, you ll never understand page 2 Since I could never quite get page 1 metaphorically speaking , I was never ever going to move on to page 2 That just doesn t work for a reading group, even a two person group So I entered this book with trepidation Thankfully, right at the beginning, Nadler says that he is not making an effort to teach Spinoza s philosophy whew So except for a brief section later on, which I of course ran my eyes over, it was not a very difficult book Nadler does discuss the larger issues that were controversial and so he does deal somewhat with Spinoza s philosophy But it does seem that since so many of the people who attacked him didn t really understand his philosophy either, I was pretty safe It was a relatively abstract biography in the sense of dealing with Spinoza s beliefsthan his life But it could be because of the great destruction of his correspondence after his decease which Nadler mentions I didn t get a good feel for Spinoza as a person except for his open mindedness towards others


  4. Tamara Jaffe-Notier Tamara Jaffe-Notier says:

    This detailed analysis of the life and times of Spinoza is so thoroughly enjoyable that I bought the book and am re reading it as we hike through Germany, Belgium, and Holland.


  5. Owlseyes Owlseyes says:

    The Graphic SpinozaBy Ben Nadler, Steven Nadlerin The Graphic SpinozaBy Ben Nadler, Steven Nadlerin


  6. Dieuwe Beersma Dieuwe Beersma says:

    What a great work on the philosopher who shocked the world Not only is it a wonderful introduction to Spinoza s Ethics, it gives great insight in Cartesian philosophy as well Further, the book really succeeds in showing the importance of the intellectual climate and the historical developments of the 17th century Dutch Republic, and of course especially that of the city of Amsterdam As Nadler statesif one must search for the corruptor of Spinoza, then, in a sense the real culpr What a great work on the philosopher who shocked the world Not only is it a wonderful introduction to Spinoza s Ethics, it gives great insight in Cartesian philosophy as well Further, the book really succeeds in showing the importance of the intellectual climate and the historical developments of the 17th century Dutch Republic, and of course especially that of the city of Amsterdam As Nadler statesif one must search for the corruptor of Spinoza, then, in a sense the real culprit is Amsterdam itself2018 173 The book shows the sincere religiosity of Spinoza He searched for the true God through the power of the intellect, outside the constraining and repressive atmosphere of 17th century organised religion He aspired to a life led based on reason and virtue, instead of bondage to the passions And according to him, so can youSpinoza clearly believed that anyone and we are all endowed with the same rational cognitive facilities with sufficient self mastery and intellectual attentiveness can perceive the truth to the highest degree 2018 265.


  7. Macdonagh Macdonagh says:

    An excellent biography One thing to note it is difficult to get started because there is a significant amount of historical background Nadler goes into Spinoza s background three or four times removed, if my memory serves me accurately For Spinoza and the period and place in which he lived and wrote, this background is well worth the effort It will put a great deal of what follows into perspective.Spinoza was an avid letter writer Nadler draws on this fortunate fact As the story unfolds S An excellent biography One thing to note it is difficult to get started because there is a significant amount of historical background Nadler goes into Spinoza s background three or four times removed, if my memory serves me accurately For Spinoza and the period and place in which he lived and wrote, this background is well worth the effort It will put a great deal of what follows into perspective.Spinoza was an avid letter writer Nadler draws on this fortunate fact As the story unfolds Spinoza as a person begins to materialize and one feels as if he knows this man who was brilliant, courageous, simple and entirely focused on finding truth Nevertheless, he was equally dedicated to treated people kindly and patiently even when they did not agree with him, and he lived in a society which, for the most part did not I have long admired Spinoza as a seeker after truth and as a warm and caring human being If we were contemporaries, I would be his friend even though I cannot agree with his world view I believe that we would be able to have many a profitable conversation I wish there wereChristian thinkers like him


  8. Alessandro Veneri Alessandro Veneri says:

    The book covers a lot of 17th century s history of the Netherlands much importance has been given to the description of the history, key figures and habits of the Amsterdam s Jew community, to which Spinoza belonged.The biography traces all Spinoza s relationships, among which stands out his correspondence with Oldenburg, and the Amsterdam s circle of Spinoza s friends I found touching the reported meetings of Spinoza with Leibniz.The biographical aim of the book may suggest that not much of The book covers a lot of 17th century s history of the Netherlands much importance has been given to the description of the history, key figures and habits of the Amsterdam s Jew community, to which Spinoza belonged.The biography traces all Spinoza s relationships, among which stands out his correspondence with Oldenburg, and the Amsterdam s circle of Spinoza s friends I found touching the reported meetings of Spinoza with Leibniz.The biographical aim of the book may suggest that not much of Spinoza s philosophy could be found here however, given how much any philosopher s thought is shaped by historical contingencies, and given Nadler s effort to report historical facts at length, it is not surprising that the basic concepts of Spinoza s philosophy are here covered Particular emphasis has been given to the contents of the Theological political Treatise, while the Ethics has been left on the background


  9. Jw van Eck Jw van Eck says:

    Spinozo lived in really interesting times A contemporary of Huygens, Leibnitz, Hobbes, van Leeuwenhoek, de Witt Holland just one nation, well kind of, and lots of really friendly nations around us A teacher of Descartes thinking, he really was a critical thinker on his own And those ideas about God, reason and religion caused quite an uproar What he did write, was soon forbidding by the Dutch courts and most of it was published after he died At least a bit safer life for critical thinkers Spinozo lived in really interesting times A contemporary of Huygens, Leibnitz, Hobbes, van Leeuwenhoek, de Witt Holland just one nation, well kind of, and lots of really friendly nations around us A teacher of Descartes thinking, he really was a critical thinker on his own And those ideas about God, reason and religion caused quite an uproar What he did write, was soon forbidding by the Dutch courts and most of it was published after he died At least a bit safer life for critical thinkers in not so tolerant Holland, then But Spinoza was all about tolerance, democracy, freedom of thinking and religion Nadler puts his thinking in the perspective of the time Very worthwhile to read


  10. Voss Voss says:

    Conoscevo l opera di Spinoza, ma nulla della sua vita Questo libro racconta tutto quello che si sa per certo e fa poche, ma solide ipotesi su quello che non si sa.Non solo racconta la situazione degli ebrei in Spagna e Portogallo, l Olanda del 600 illustra con criterio e semplicit i punti fondamentali dell opera spinoziana e offre una panoramica efficace del clima filosofico e teologico dell epoca.Un libro ottimo.


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10 thoughts on “Spinoza: A Life

  1. robin friedman robin friedman says:

    A Biography Of A Great PhilosopherBenedict Spinoza 1632 1677 is one of the most influential philosophers in history As a young man, her was excommunicated by the elders of the Jewish community in Amsterdam and subsequently came to be regarded by some as a secular saint and by others as an infamous atheist Although there are many legends and myths about Spinoza s life, there has been no extended biography in English until Nadler s study In fact, outside of brief accounts written shortly af A Biography Of A Great PhilosopherBenedict Spinoza 1632 1677 is one of the most influential philosophers in history As a young man, her was excommunicated by the elders of the Jewish community in Amsterdam and subsequently came to be regarded by some as a secular saint and by others as an infamous atheist Although there are many legends and myths about Spinoza s life, there has been no extended biography in English until Nadler s study In fact, outside of brief accounts written shortly after Spinoza s death, this book is probably the first extended treatment of Spinoza s life in any language.Given the scarcity of biographical information, Nadler does an excellent job in placing Spinoza s life in historical context He discusses in detail how the Jewish community in Amsterdam became established, precariously, by immigrants from the Inquisition in Spain and Portugal He describes the efforts the Jewish community made to win acceptance in Amsterdam, the place of Spinoza s family in the Jewish community, and the rabbis and leaders of the community Some of this material is well known, others of it is less so It is all valuable to getting to understand Spinoza.There is a great deal of discussion of the history of the Dutch republic in Spinoza s time Nadler s discussion includes both internal affairs the tension between those who wanted a powerful monarch and those who wanted republican institutions and the complex foreign wars and shifting alliances of the Netherlands during Spinoza s time I never could make sense of this material before, but Nadler has discussed it well and in sufficient detail to provide a good background in understanding Spinoza s political ideas.Nadler s book is not itself a philosophical study But he treats carefully and instructively the origin of Spinoza s works and he summarizes their complex ideas well He does not limit his discussion to the Ethics Instead, Nadler spends a great deal of time on the Theological Political Treatise which he rightly views as a neglected masterpiece complementary to the Ethics There are also good discussions of Spinoza s unfinished Hebrew Grammar and, particularly, of the Epistles, as well as of his other works.Nadler has a good sense of Spinoza s naturalism encompassed be the famous phrase deus, siva natura He gives the reader a good feel for the revolutionary nature of Spinoza s thought and shows how and why Spinoza departed from the traditional religious belief of his day.Nadler is a careful in his use of sources He tells the reader what evidence from a record both complex and sparse he accepts, what he doubts, and why When Nadler draws a conclusion that goes beyond the available evidence, he tells the reader that he has done so and why he has done so This is measured, careful writing about a figure Nadler obviously admires.There is much creative detail in this book as Nadler draws on recent scholarship to cast light on Spinoza and his times For example, he relies substantially on the report made to the Inquisition of a person who knew Spinoza in Amsterdam He discusses the Sabatti Zvi incident a false Jewish Messiah who appealed to many people during Spinoza s lifetime and Spinoza s possible knowledge of it The book debunks the myth of Spinoza as a recluse One of the strongest features of the book is its picture of Spinoza s intellectual circle and of his relationship to many friends.The book doesn t include a critical analysis of Spinoza s thought Such studies are legion and there still is much to say and learn Also, the book doesn t discuss the reception and influence of Spinoza through the years Again, this is beyond the scope of the book The book is an excellent biography of a seminal figure in Western philosophy I came away from the book with a increased understanding of and appreciation for Spinoza s life and thought.Robin Friedman


  2. K K says:

    I ve already started reading Rebecca Goldstein s for comparison purposes , which is reinforcing my belief that it s a cliche, or should be, that a Jew of Orthodox background who fancies himself a free thinker will be drawn to the mystique surrounding this philosopher Really, who wouldn t be At age 23, Baruch Spinoza, born and raised in the Orthodox Jewish community of 17th century Amsterdam, yeshiva educated, is excommunicated and cursed by his community for unknown deeds, in one of the I ve already started reading Rebecca Goldstein s for comparison purposes , which is reinforcing my belief that it s a cliche, or should be, that a Jew of Orthodox background who fancies himself a free thinker will be drawn to the mystique surrounding this philosopher Really, who wouldn t be At age 23, Baruch Spinoza, born and raised in the Orthodox Jewish community of 17th century Amsterdam, yeshiva educated, is excommunicated and cursed by his community for unknown deeds, in one of the most vituperative extant Jewish excommunication documents Spinoza, apparently without a backward glance, leaves his family and his familiar world and goes on to become a great and highly controversial philosopher, shaking contemporary dogma and remaining iconoclastic to the end Oh, the drama.But if what you re hoping for is a juicy look at Spinoza s inner life, the pathos he and those around him must have experienced before, during, and after his excommunication, his final good bye with his family, or inner conflicts and regrets on both sides, this is not the book Steven Nadler is way too responsible a historian for that He gives you details lots of them and offers tight, well supported arguments to buttress his conclusions, but he restricts those conclusions to areas where information is available And we apparently know very little about Spinoza s personal life or inner feelings, particularly around the time of his excommunication.This book will give you a feel for 17th century Amsterdam its politics, its intellectual ferment, its Jewish and Christian communities It will give you a sense of Portuguese Marrano families and what they went through It will tell you about the ideological controversies of the times, and how Spinoza both contributed to these controversies and was affected by them It will try not entirely successfully, in my case to give you a distilled understanding of Spinoza s philosophy and writings It s an educational and worthwhile read, and an admirable feat What it won t give you is Spinoza The Drama, which would certainly be aexciting, if highly speculative read Oh, well It was an effort, but I m not sorry I pushed my way through I learned a lot


  3. Lauren Albert Lauren Albert says:

    So, some time ago Fred I decided to read The Ethics together That lasted about a day His theory was that if you don t understand something, you keep reading and eventually it will all come clear to you My theory is that if you don t understand page 1, you ll never understand page 2 Since I could never quite get page 1 metaphorically speaking , I was never ever going to move on to page 2 That just doesn t work for a reading group, even a two person group So I entered this book with trepi So, some time ago Fred I decided to read The Ethics together That lasted about a day His theory was that if you don t understand something, you keep reading and eventually it will all come clear to you My theory is that if you don t understand page 1, you ll never understand page 2 Since I could never quite get page 1 metaphorically speaking , I was never ever going to move on to page 2 That just doesn t work for a reading group, even a two person group So I entered this book with trepidation Thankfully, right at the beginning, Nadler says that he is not making an effort to teach Spinoza s philosophy whew So except for a brief section later on, which I of course ran my eyes over, it was not a very difficult book Nadler does discuss the larger issues that were controversial and so he does deal somewhat with Spinoza s philosophy But it does seem that since so many of the people who attacked him didn t really understand his philosophy either, I was pretty safe It was a relatively abstract biography in the sense of dealing with Spinoza s beliefsthan his life But it could be because of the great destruction of his correspondence after his decease which Nadler mentions I didn t get a good feel for Spinoza as a person except for his open mindedness towards others


  4. Tamara Jaffe-Notier Tamara Jaffe-Notier says:

    This detailed analysis of the life and times of Spinoza is so thoroughly enjoyable that I bought the book and am re reading it as we hike through Germany, Belgium, and Holland.


  5. Owlseyes Owlseyes says:

    The Graphic SpinozaBy Ben Nadler, Steven Nadlerin The Graphic SpinozaBy Ben Nadler, Steven Nadlerin


  6. Dieuwe Beersma Dieuwe Beersma says:

    What a great work on the philosopher who shocked the world Not only is it a wonderful introduction to Spinoza s Ethics, it gives great insight in Cartesian philosophy as well Further, the book really succeeds in showing the importance of the intellectual climate and the historical developments of the 17th century Dutch Republic, and of course especially that of the city of Amsterdam As Nadler statesif one must search for the corruptor of Spinoza, then, in a sense the real culpr What a great work on the philosopher who shocked the world Not only is it a wonderful introduction to Spinoza s Ethics, it gives great insight in Cartesian philosophy as well Further, the book really succeeds in showing the importance of the intellectual climate and the historical developments of the 17th century Dutch Republic, and of course especially that of the city of Amsterdam As Nadler statesif one must search for the corruptor of Spinoza, then, in a sense the real culprit is Amsterdam itself2018 173 The book shows the sincere religiosity of Spinoza He searched for the true God through the power of the intellect, outside the constraining and repressive atmosphere of 17th century organised religion He aspired to a life led based on reason and virtue, instead of bondage to the passions And according to him, so can youSpinoza clearly believed that anyone and we are all endowed with the same rational cognitive facilities with sufficient self mastery and intellectual attentiveness can perceive the truth to the highest degree 2018 265.


  7. Macdonagh Macdonagh says:

    An excellent biography One thing to note it is difficult to get started because there is a significant amount of historical background Nadler goes into Spinoza s background three or four times removed, if my memory serves me accurately For Spinoza and the period and place in which he lived and wrote, this background is well worth the effort It will put a great deal of what follows into perspective.Spinoza was an avid letter writer Nadler draws on this fortunate fact As the story unfolds S An excellent biography One thing to note it is difficult to get started because there is a significant amount of historical background Nadler goes into Spinoza s background three or four times removed, if my memory serves me accurately For Spinoza and the period and place in which he lived and wrote, this background is well worth the effort It will put a great deal of what follows into perspective.Spinoza was an avid letter writer Nadler draws on this fortunate fact As the story unfolds Spinoza as a person begins to materialize and one feels as if he knows this man who was brilliant, courageous, simple and entirely focused on finding truth Nevertheless, he was equally dedicated to treated people kindly and patiently even when they did not agree with him, and he lived in a society which, for the most part did not I have long admired Spinoza as a seeker after truth and as a warm and caring human being If we were contemporaries, I would be his friend even though I cannot agree with his world view I believe that we would be able to have many a profitable conversation I wish there wereChristian thinkers like him


  8. Alessandro Veneri Alessandro Veneri says:

    The book covers a lot of 17th century s history of the Netherlands much importance has been given to the description of the history, key figures and habits of the Amsterdam s Jew community, to which Spinoza belonged.The biography traces all Spinoza s relationships, among which stands out his correspondence with Oldenburg, and the Amsterdam s circle of Spinoza s friends I found touching the reported meetings of Spinoza with Leibniz.The biographical aim of the book may suggest that not much of The book covers a lot of 17th century s history of the Netherlands much importance has been given to the description of the history, key figures and habits of the Amsterdam s Jew community, to which Spinoza belonged.The biography traces all Spinoza s relationships, among which stands out his correspondence with Oldenburg, and the Amsterdam s circle of Spinoza s friends I found touching the reported meetings of Spinoza with Leibniz.The biographical aim of the book may suggest that not much of Spinoza s philosophy could be found here however, given how much any philosopher s thought is shaped by historical contingencies, and given Nadler s effort to report historical facts at length, it is not surprising that the basic concepts of Spinoza s philosophy are here covered Particular emphasis has been given to the contents of the Theological political Treatise, while the Ethics has been left on the background


  9. Jw van Eck Jw van Eck says:

    Spinozo lived in really interesting times A contemporary of Huygens, Leibnitz, Hobbes, van Leeuwenhoek, de Witt Holland just one nation, well kind of, and lots of really friendly nations around us A teacher of Descartes thinking, he really was a critical thinker on his own And those ideas about God, reason and religion caused quite an uproar What he did write, was soon forbidding by the Dutch courts and most of it was published after he died At least a bit safer life for critical thinkers Spinozo lived in really interesting times A contemporary of Huygens, Leibnitz, Hobbes, van Leeuwenhoek, de Witt Holland just one nation, well kind of, and lots of really friendly nations around us A teacher of Descartes thinking, he really was a critical thinker on his own And those ideas about God, reason and religion caused quite an uproar What he did write, was soon forbidding by the Dutch courts and most of it was published after he died At least a bit safer life for critical thinkers in not so tolerant Holland, then But Spinoza was all about tolerance, democracy, freedom of thinking and religion Nadler puts his thinking in the perspective of the time Very worthwhile to read


  10. Voss Voss says:

    Conoscevo l opera di Spinoza, ma nulla della sua vita Questo libro racconta tutto quello che si sa per certo e fa poche, ma solide ipotesi su quello che non si sa.Non solo racconta la situazione degli ebrei in Spagna e Portogallo, l Olanda del 600 illustra con criterio e semplicit i punti fondamentali dell opera spinoziana e offre una panoramica efficace del clima filosofico e teologico dell epoca.Un libro ottimo.


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